Seismic risk analysis of liquid fuel systems: A conceptual and procedural framework for guidelines development
Sayı: NIST GCR 97-719, 1997/06
Recent earthquakes, notably the 1989 Loma Prieta, 1994 Northridge and 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquakes, caused widespread damage to the urban infrastructure facilities including lifeline networks. The unacceptable seismic performance of many lifelines during these earthquakes creates an urgent need to develop comprehensive seismic design and retrofit guidelines. Most current design and construction standards for lifelines do not include seismic provisions and those that do, focus on the seismic performance of components, such as pipelines, pumping stations, and storage tanks. There are neither seismic design guidelines or codes that apply to lifelines as a whole, particularly from the systems point of view. The guidelines developed for a particular component may permit design or retrofit in accordance with a specific level of seismic risk that is not consistent with the importance of that component when analyzed from a systems point of view. In fact, a joint National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) effort to develop and adopt seismic design guidelines and standards for lifelines concluded that "standards for lifeline design and construction must give special attention to the performance of each lifeline as a system and to the interdependence of the various lifeline systems".
This study develops a conceptual and procedural framework for design and retrofit guidelines for liquid fuel systems. To focus the study and to ensure a useful result in a limited time-frame, however, this study concentrates on seismic performance of oil transmission systems. Within this context, the study still emphasizes the systems aspect of the lifeline and takes into consideration explicitly the lifeline system performance and economic losses resulting from service disruptions. Ground work will be laid for the development of design and retrofit guidelines for oil transmission systems by following the framework thus estimated. Such guidelines will enhance the integrity of oil transmission systems in a seismic event and will minimize the direct and indirect economic losses resulting from loss of service.
Anahtar Kelimeler: liquid fuels; risk analysis; earthquakes; pipelies; lifelines; standards
U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
|1.||Bilimsel Çalışmalar » Doğal Afet Risk Değerlendirmesi|
|2.||Endüstri » Boru Hatları|
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